bLue - Learner Objectives

Unit 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  2. Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  3. Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  4. Identify the four requirements for human survival
  5. Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  6. Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in thebody
  7. Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Unit 2: Basic Chemistry

  1. Describe the fundamental composition of matter
  2. Identify the three subatomic particles
  3. Identify the four most abundant elements in the body
  4. Explain the relationship between an atom’s number of electrons and its relative stability
  5. Distinguish between ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds
  6. Explain how energy is invested, stored, and released via chemical reactions, particularly those reactions thatare critical to life
  7. Explain the importance of the inorganic compounds that contribute to life, such as water, salts, acids, andbases
  8. Compare and contrast the four important classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds—proteins,carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids—according to their composition and functional importance to human life

Unit 3: Cells and Tissues

  1. Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane, including its regulation of materials into and out of the cell
  2. Describe the functions of the various cytoplasmic organelles
  3. Explain the structure and contents of the nucleus, as well as the process of DNA replication
  4. Explain the process by which a cell builds proteins using the DNA code
  5. List the stages of the cell cycle in order, including the steps of cell division in somatic cells
  6. Discuss how a cell differentiates and becomes more specialized
  7. List the morphological and physiological characteristics of some representative cell types in the human body
  8. Identify the main tissue types and discuss their roles in the human body
  9. Identify the four types of tissue membranes and the characteristics of each that make them functional
  10. Explain the functions of various epithelial tissues and how their forms enable their functions
  11. Explain the functions of various connective tissues and how their forms enable their functions
  12. Describe the characteristics of muscle tissue and how these enable function
  13. Discuss the characteristics of nervous tissue and how these enable information processing and control ofmuscular and glandular activities

Unit 4: The Integumentary System

  1. Describe the integumentary system and the role it plays in homeostasis
  2. Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer
  3. Describe the accessory structures of the skin and the functions of each
  4. Describe the changes that occur in the integumentary system during the aging process
  5. Discuss several common diseases, disorders, and injuries that affect the integumentary system
  6. Explain treatments for some common diseases, disorders, and injuries of the integumentary system

Unit 5: The Skeletal System

  1. List and describe the functions of bones
  2. Describe the classes of bones
  3. Discuss the process of bone formation and development
  4. Explain how bone repairs itself after a fracture
  5. Discuss the effect of exercise, nutrition, and hormones on bone tissue
  6. Describe how an imbalance of calcium can affect bone tissue
  7. Describe the functions of the skeletal system and define its two major subdivisions
  8. Identify the bones and bony structures of the skull, the cranial suture lines, the cranial fossae, and theopenings in the skull
  9. Discuss the vertebral column and regional variations in its bony components and curvatures
  10. Describe the components of the thoracic cage
  11. Discuss the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles, and describe how these unite the limbs with the axial skeleton
  12. Describe the bones of the upper limb, including the bones of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
  13. Identify the features of the pelvis and explain how these differ between the adult male and female pelvis
  14. Describe the bones of the lower limb, including the bones of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
  15. Discuss both functional and structural classifications for body joints
  16. Describe the characteristic features for fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints and give examples of each
  17. Discuss the structure of specific body joints and the movements allowed by each

Unit 6: The Muscle System

  1. Explain the organization of muscle tissue
  2. Describe the function and structure of skeletal, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
  3. Explain how muscles work with tendons to move the body
  4. Describe how muscles contract and relax
  5. Define the process of muscle metabolism
  6. Explain how the nervous system controls muscle tension
  7. Relate the connections between exercise and muscle performance

Unit 7: The Nervous System

  1. Name the major divisions of the nervous system, both anatomical and functional
  2. Describe the functional and structural differences between gray matter and white matter structures
  3. Name the parts of the multipolar neuron in order of polarity
  4. List the types of glial cells and assign each to the proper division of the nervous system, along with their function(s)
  5. Distinguish the major functions of the nervous system: sensation, integration, and response
  6. Describe the components of the membrane that establish the resting membrane potential
  7. Describe the changes that occur to the membrane that result in the action potential
  8. Categorize the major neurotransmitters by chemical type and effect
  9. Relate the developmental processes of the embryonic nervous system to the adult structures
  10. Name the major regions of the adult nervous system
  11. Locate regions of the cerebral cortex on the basis of anatomical landmarks common to all human brains
  12. Describe the regions of the spinal cord in cross-section

Unit 8: The Special Senses

  1. Describe the structure and function of accessory eye structures, eye layers, the lens, and humors of the eye.
  2. Outline the causes and consequences of cataracts and glaucoma.
  3. Trace the pathway of light through the eye to the retina, and explain how light isfocused for distant and close vision.
  4. Outline the causes and consequences of astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia, andpresbyopia.
  5. Describe the events that convert light into a neural signal.
  6. Compare and contrast the roles of rods and cones in vision.
  7. Describe the location, structure, and afferent pathways of smell receptors, and explain how these receptors are activated.
  8. Describe the structure and general function of the outer, middle, and internal ears.
  9. Describe the sound conduction pathway to the fluids of the internal ear.
  10. Explain how the balance organs of the semicircular canals and the vestibule help maintain equilibrium.

Unit 9: The Endocrine System

  1. Identify the contributions of the endocrine system to homeostasis
  2. Discuss the chemical composition of hormones and the mechanisms of hormone action
  3. Summarize the site of production, regulation, and effects of the hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands
  4. Discuss the hormonal regulation of the reproductive system
  5. Explain the role of the pancreatic endocrine cells in the regulation of blood glucose
  6. Identify the hormones released by the heart, kidneys, and other organs with secondary endocrine functions
  7. Discuss several common diseases associated with endocrine system dysfunction

Unit 10: The Blood

  1. Identify the primary functions of blood, its fluid and cellular components, and its physical characteristics
  2. Identify the most important proteins and other solutes present in blood plasma
  3. Describe the formation of the formed element components of blood
  4. Discuss the structure and function of red blood cells and hemoglobin
  5. Classify and characterize white blood cells
  6. Describe the structure of platelets and explain the process of hemostasis
  7. Explain the significance of AB and Rh blood groups in blood transfusions
  8. Discuss a variety of blood disorders

Unit 11: The Cardiovascular System

  1. Identify and describe the interior and exterior parts of the human heart
  2. Describe the path of blood through the cardiac circuits
  3. Describe the size, shape, and location of the heart
  4. Compare cardiac muscle to skeletal and smooth muscle
  5. Explain the cardiac conduction system
  6. Explain the cardiac cycle
  7. Calculate cardiac output
  8. Describe the effects of exercise on cardiac output and heart rate
  9. Compare and contrast the anatomical structure of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
  10. List the major factors affecting blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance
  11. Describe how blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance interrelate
  12. Discuss how the neural and endocrine mechanisms maintain homeostasis within the blood vessels
  13. Label the major blood vessels of the pulmonary and systemic circulations
  14. Identify and describe the hepatic portal system
  15. Describe the development of blood vessels and fetal circulation

Unit 12: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems

  1. Identify the components and anatomy of the lymphatic system
  2. Discuss the role of the innate immune response against pathogens
  3. Describe the power of the adaptive immune response to cure disease
  4. Explain immunological deficiencies and over-reactions of the immune system

Unit 13: The Respiratory System

  1. List the structures of the respiratory system
  2. List the major functions of the respiratory system
  3. Outline the forces that allow for air movement into and out of the lungs
  4. Outline the process of gas exchange
  5. Summarize the process of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport within the respiratory system
  6. Create a flow chart illustrating how respiration is controlled

Unit 14: The Digestive System and Body Metabolism

  1. List and describe the functional anatomy of the organs and accessory organs of the digestive system
  2. Discuss the processes and control of ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion,absorption, and defecation
  3. Discuss the roles of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder in digestion
  4. Compare and contrast the digestion of the three macronutrients
  5. Describe the processes involved in anabolic and catabolic reactions
  6. List and describe the steps necessary for carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism
  7. Summarize the importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet

Unit 15: The Urinary System and Electrolyte Balance

  1. Describe the composition of urine
  2. Label structures of the urinary system and characterize the roles of each of the parts of the urinary system
  3. Illustrate the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the kidney
  4. Trace the flow of blood through the kidney
  5. Outline how blood is filtered in the kidney nephron
  6. List some of the solutes filtered, secreted, and reabsorbed in different parts of the nephron
  7. Explain how urine osmolarity is hormonally regulated
  8. Describe the regulation of major ions by the kidney
  9. Identify the ions most important to the function of the body
  10. Define buffer and discuss the role of buffers in the body

Unit 16: The Reproductive System and Heredity

  1. Describe the anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems, including their accessory structures
  2. Explain the role of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones in male and female reproductive function
  3. Trace the path of a sperm cell from its initial production through fertilization of an oocyte
  4. Explain the events in the ovary prior to ovulation
  5. List and explain the steps involved in fertilization
  6. Describe the major events in embryonic development
  7. Classify and describe the different patterns of inheritance
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